Faced with bare-bones budgets, schools are turning to all manner of creative tactics -- from a glitzy, state-of-the-art Sharper Image approach to the Salvation Army -- to get computers to their pupils.
Computer literacy means knowing how to get information and knowing what to do with it, an increasingly necessary skill for everything from banking to basic job responsibilities. Beyond that, a computer can change classroom learning from a passive process to an active one. The technological revolution is as much about teaching kids to think as it is about teaching them to navigate across a mouse pad. But it's also a matter of money, which is where California falls short.
The very same state that gave birth to the computer industry is tragically behind in educating its children with and about technology. It's the Golden State's dirty little secret. According to Quality Education Data, a Denver-based private research organization, California ranks 50th (dead last) in its ratio of students per computer, with 16-to-1. Leaders of the pack like South Dakota, Wyoming, and North Dakota have about 6-to-1. Our own state Department of Education claims that California's 45th, with about 14 students per computer -- splitting hairs between abysmal and pathetic. And that figure is shaky. The same Department of Education reports acknowledge that, once obsolete equipment is removed from consideration, the ratio rises to 73-to-1.
During the past decade, the problem has grown so rapidly that a recent state task force estimated that to make California schools technologically competitive with other states would cost $10.9 billion over the next four years. Absent some radical change, public education here is rapidly becoming irrelevant to the professional world.
Consider the following:
By the year 2000 (less than four years from now), an estimated 60 percent of all jobs in the United States will require a working knowledge of information technologies, according to the state task force study. And during the past five years, nearly 10 percent of the nation's universities have included ownership of a computer in their admission requirements because it's necessary for routine tasks like participating in study groups or turning in assignments.
Technology caught the state's leaders off guard, but it didn't happen overnight. First came financial drought, then a loss of vision. The problem dates back to 1978, when anti-tax crusaders Howard Jarvis and Paul Gann created and sold Proposition 13 to California voters. Prior to that, much of California's education was funded through local property taxes. Prop. 13 ended that, put a lid on property taxes, and left schools nearly entirely at the mercy of state budget-makers. On its heels came a voter-imposed limit on government spending. And all that occurred before computers in schools were an issue.
Throughout the 1980s, many hands were wrung about technology in the education community, which was divided on whether it should be pursued or was just a fad. Only a handful of educators knew what to do with computers if they had them, and since there was no money available anyway, there wasn't a great push to learn more.
Even those teachers with the vision to pioneer computer education would put smaller class sizes and more help ahead of new hardware. And the recession was not kind to education. California still spends nearly $1,000 less per student than the national average.
"In the last five to six years, before last year, you almost had to have your head in the sand not to realize that technology was going to become a key piece of the economic picture," says Donavan Merck, manager of the Education Technology section at the California Department of Education. "It's preparing kids for the work force, it's keeping companies here, it's sales of products produced in California. It wouldn't have taken a visionary to know this was coming. But at the same time, there were budget snafus, delayed budgets, and they couldn't find money to do anything. You can see why no one was going to say, 'Well, we need $3 billion for technology.' "
Now it's more than $10 billion.
Technology is not cheap, especially in places like San Francisco, with its once grand, now aged, and, in some cases, downright decrepit buildings. The San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) in 1993 estimated that it would cost about $60 million to add the infrastructure (mostly wiring) needed for technology, put six computers in every classroom, and equip a few laboratories. The money simply is not there.
So, SFUSD has taken a lesson from the Salvation Army.
Ray Porter used to be a teacher. Now he spends most days directing traffic in a couple of classrooms that have become a makeshift warehouse of computer parts. Porter and his flock of volunteers take in computer discards from various business offices, tinker and fix them up, and pass them out to students.
Most of these computers are medium-low in the world of high-tech. They're 286 machines, obsolete to the work world but enough for students to use for writing and running a basic spreadsheet. Better yet, the kids get to take them home. The program has expanded from Marshall High and Gloria Davis Middle schools in Bayview-Hunters Point into Potrero Hill Middle School.
"The idea is that the kids write at home, bring their work in on a disk, and print it out here," explains Porter. The students also have e-mail access. "Children writing to one another and teachers on a regular basis is exciting."
Pac Bell this week donated 500 computers to SFUSD, along with wiring kits for every school. Various other grant-supported programs have brought a sprinkling of computers into some of the district's schools. But it is a mere drop in the bucket of technology. The district's Technology Master Plan calls for placing six computers in every classroom and connecting them to the Internet. Meanwhile, according to the Department of Education, surveys of California businesses indicate that the majority of 1997 high school seniors will graduate unprepared for the workplace.
"One of the premier issues for us is the issue of access for students and teachers," says Sam Dederian, who coordinates the curriculum aspect of SFUSD's push for technology.
Yet another kind of solution, albeit a more costly one, is in progress across the bay in the 14,000-student New Haven School District in Hayward. After years of planning, raising funds with bingo games, and one failed attempt at a bond, the district in 1993 finally convinced its voters to risk the debt and pass a $55 million bond issue, most of which is going toward technology.
Under New Haven's plan, every classroom has seven (new) computers, a television monitor, a VCR, and a laser printer. Labs at each school house more specialized equipment capable of running multimedia programs. By next year, the entire district will be networked, schools connected to each other and to the Internet with a high-speed line. A voice mail system in progress will allow parents to check on their children's classroom attendance.
Teachers take the roll and record grades via a computer that sends the information to the district office. At Logan High School, whose auditorium only holds about 300 of its 4,000 students, a performance can be broadcast into every classroom.
"A lot of the recycled computers are really not capable of doing the multimedia things we want to do," says Roger Hoyer, who's coordinating New Haven's technological advance.
"We simply don't have the people for the maintenance and trying to deal with the dissimilar equipment," he says.
The district also got permission from the state to shave off some time from the state's required minimum school hours in order to provide 90-minute training classes for its teachers once a week.
But technology doesn't stand still. During the past decade, while legislators were arm-wrestling over cash in Sacramento, educational software, once largely thought of as "edutainment," became more relevant. The advent of multimedia technology opened the door to a completely different way of learning -- suddenly education was interactive.
More recently, and perhaps most significantly to public education, the Internet has made unlimited information accessible as never before. Prior to the birth of the Internet, technology became obsolete faster than it could be installed. Now access is what's important, not necessarily the cutting-edge equipment. Once the infrastructure is in place, building from that doesn't require completely replacing everything in the school -- and it's cheaper.
Access to the Internet means that students don't just write a term paper, they create a multimedia presentation from the information they've gathered. The physical education class is analyzing fat content; music students are composing; and science homework involves charting weather conditions around the world and their effect on the environment. Students here can correspond with students in another part of the world about their culture and what it means to live there. They can tap into NASA or National Geographic. Inner-city children can now take "field trips" to places they would otherwise never see, or "travel" inside a volcano without ever leaving the classroom.
That is, they can do all of this if they have the tools.