By Erin Sherbert
By Howard Cole
By Erin Sherbert
By Erin Sherbert
By Leif Haven
By Erin Sherbert
By Chris Roberts
By Kate Conger
Torture(tor-chur) n. 1. the infliction of severe pain as a punishment or means of coercion. -- Oxford American Dictionary
Torture(tor-chur) n. 1. a form of sensual bliss that precedes or deposes sexual release. -- Lady Katrina
There can be no confusion as to the aim of the Herbst International Exhibition Hall's "Torture Exhibition: European Instruments of Torture and Capital Punishment From the Middle Ages to the Present." Both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch endorse the touring retrospective of more than 100 gruesome implements of suffering on loan from the Criminal Medieval Museum of San Gimignano, Italy. Since its debut in Florence in 1983, the macabre exposition has drawn thousands of visitors to showings throughout Europe, Tokyo, Argentina, and Mexico and has spawned lectures and debates about human cruelty wherever it has appeared.
"Our commitment is to show how, throughout the centuries, human beings have been tortured, both in body and soul," says exhibition director Aldo Migliorini. "We want to combat violence, torture, and capital punishment against living beings."
That said, it is not only the socially conscious and soberly altruistic who are drawn to a show of this kind. More than a few people in San Francisco would give their eyeteeth to add the gorgeous Catalonian Garrote, with its highly burnished wooden seat, severe iron collar, and perversely pious crucifix-shaped base, to their personal collection or in-home dungeon.
The history of the garrote stretches back to ancient times when a simple pole was driven into the ground and the attached rope was strung around a nearby neck. In Spain, the device was "perfected" for executions by adding a dull iron spike on the inside of the collar that would crush the cervical vertebrae and push the trachea against the immobile constraint by screws that were unhurriedly tightened. This little innovation added agony to the already fatal process of asphyxiation, and was used in Spain until 1975 and in much of Latin America until only recently.
But 26-year-old "Lady Katrina" has other ideas, something involving a deerskin flogger and an adjustable ball stretcher (a soft leather apparatus that straps half-pound weights to her lover's scrotum) available from the San Francisco mail-order company Blowfish.
"It is very stylish, no?" asks Katrina, looking like a ghoulish hand model, running a pale index finger along the smooth wooden edges of the contraption.
Of course, there is no sublimating the intention of the Guillotine-- a towering example of which sits at the front door of the hall guarded by a formidable hooded executioner -- which was actually the attempt of French physician Joseph Ignace Guillotin to make beheading more humane. Or the Bull of Falaride, a hollow cast-iron bull in which men were slowly roasted in Athens.
"Perhaps just a little heat could teach someone a lesson," suggests Katrina. "It is very pretty, anyway."
Indeed, as detailed and lovingly tooled as is the re-creation of the bull, it is not difficult to imagine the beast sitting as an objet d'art in someone's sculpture garden, and the Bull of Falaride is not the only highly ornamental device of torture on display. The Barrel Pillory, popularly used on drunkards and gamblers in 18th-century Salzburg, was often filled with feces and urine before the penitent was lowered inside, but the barrel itself depicts lovely folk scenes painted in watercolors of men drinking beer with their families, carrying sacks of grain, climbing apple trees, and serenading ladies at their bedroom windows. The Branks, Scold's Bridles, and Masks of Infamyare fine examples of metalworks that made their way from 16th-century Scotland to the Americas styled after animal heads, mostly pigs and donkeys, in a most artfully balanced and aesthetically appealing way (if only one were able to overlook the internal spikes, blades, or balls that frequently disfigured the tongues of the back-talking wives who were forced to wear the masks in public). The Oral, Rectal, and Vaginal Pears-- used respectively on blasphemers, sodomites, and Satan's concubines (adulterers) -- are delicately carved and richly adorned pear-shaped mechanisms that open up inside the body with the turn of a screw, thereby mutilating the corresponding orifice, often with fatal results. (Such things are still used in parts of the world today, though they are not so artfully decorated as during the Inquisition.) Perhaps all this might be avoided by simply kissing the exquisitely inlaid Inquisitors' Crucifix, which holds hidden within its religious trappings a razor-sharp dagger. But probably not.
Of course, some of the most ingenious forms of torture require little pomp and paraphernalia. Featured at the Herbst are several small reproductions of historical paintings accompanied by meticulous, grisly descriptions of preferred torture: Flaying Alive, during which the dermal strata is cut through until the knife reaches muscle, where careful undercuts between the muscle and epidermis allow the hide to be peeled away whole as the victim expires from blood loss; Water Torture, in which the incline of the body and hasty bloating through forced water consumption causes the crushing of internal organs and suffocation; and the seemingly innocuous Goat's Tongue, for which a dehydrated goat is invited to lick salt off of the soles of someone's feet until bone is exposed. But even obvious accouterments like the Rack, Saw, Head Crusher, and Skull Splitterbenefit from the colorful language employed by the Italian curator of the "Torture Exhibition": The Rack, a must-have item for any well-equipped Italian dungeon between the 1500s and 1700s, lengthened the human body up to 12 inches, causing the very audible separation of joints and ripping of muscle tissue; the Two-Handed Saw was used to dissever the body from anus to throat while the victim hung upside down and spread-eagled (blood flow to the brain kept a person conscious); small spikes in the headband of the Skull Splitter pierced the bone as screws were tightened until the cranial cap cracked off; the elaborate vise of the Head Crusher was tightened around a metal cranium cap until "brains squirt through fragments of the skull."